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Scientific Name: Addax nasomaculatus
Global Conservation Status: critically endangered (CR)
In Israel: -
At the Zoo: 2 male and 2 female individuals in the African Yard
In the Bible: the addax is mentioned in the Bible as one of the clean animals which are permissible to eat. "These are the beasts which ye may eat: the ox, the sheep, and the goat, the hart, and the gazelle, and the roebuck, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the antelope, and the mountain-sheep." Deuteronomy 14:4-5
Habitat and Distribution: desert areas, ranging from Western Sahara and Mauritania to Egypt and Sudan. The addax has been reintroduced into the wild in Morocco and Algeria. In the past, a theory had been proposed that the addax had lived in the Land of Israel, but this is almost certainly false. Today, the addax can be found in Israel, at the Yotvata Hai-Bar Nature Reserve.
Body Structure: Height – 105-115 cm. Length – 120-130 cm. Weight – 100-125 kg (males), 60-90 kg (females). Total horn length, including the two curved segments, can reach 70-85 centimeters in males, and 55-80 centimeters in females. The color of addax fur is white with brown spots on the forehead and near the mouth. In wintertime, the white fur turns light brown.
Diet: Vegetarian. The addax eats leaves, grass and plants.
Social Structure: herds. An addax herd has males and females, and can contain from 2 to 20 individuals, grazing for food.
Activity cycle: Active mostly at night, to avoid the hottest hours of the day.
Threats in the wild: Hunting
The addax is part of the bovine family, and is related to the oryx. They live in harsh climates and feed on grass and shrub leaves. They do not need to drink because they get their liquids from the food they eat. The life expectancy of an addax can reach 25 years.
The addax is mentioned in the Torah as a pure animal, and is one of the seven mammal species that, according to Judaism, may be eaten. In the past, shofars were made out of addax horns, especially by Yemenite Jews.